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"metal," "silver," "copper" in Mallory, J. P. & Douglas Q. Adams. The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. 1997.
Beekes, Robert S. P. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction. John Benjamins Publishing Co. 2nd Edition. 2011.
Lendinara, Patrizia. "The Survival of Indo-European Words in Old Frisian" in Aspects of Old Frisian Phonology. Ed. by Geart van der Meer, Rolf Bremmer Jr., & Oebele Vries. Rodopi. 2007.
Secular linguists are puzzled by the existence of twenty or so language families in the world today.
The languages within each family (and the people that speak them) have been shown to be genetically related, but few genetic links have been observed between families.
But still, if speech did evolve somewhere, somehow, we would expect to find that all languages are genetically related.
Some have therefore suggested that man evolved speech simultaneously in more than one place. This suggestion is beyond belief, considering the dangers involved in the supposed evolution of speech.
Only Genesis provides a credible explanation.
Central Asia and the rest of northern Asia host the Altaic family, which also contains Turkish.
The Pacific is host to three or four families.
...the Khosian languages are spoken in the south-west of Africa.
The result shows that 19.5% of the core vocabulary changes every 1,000 years.
If this is the same for all languages, it means that statistically all words in a language should be replaced within a period of about 10,000 years.
Trask remains unsure as to how and when this change occurred.
Again, there is no evidence to back their view that speech evolved.
...scholars supporting monogenesis or the relatability of all languages run the risk of being branded Creationists and of therefore having their work disregarded by colleagues.
It seems that there is little evidence to support the view that all languages evolved from one or more proto-languages.
The Babel account suggests that several languages came into existence on that day.
The unitary state of Indo-European languages ... [is dated at 3000 BCE].
Wieland points out that ‘to have such close correlation’s still existing makes little sense if the migrations were as much as 11,000 years ago, as is commonly believed. From the biblical record, they would have been less than some 4,000 years ago’
Crowley carries on to share how languages can change from sophisticated to simpler versions, and from simpler to more complex systems. He distinguishes between, ‘isolating’, ‘agglutinating’ and ‘inflecting’ languages and shows how languages change in circular patterns.
Classical Greek was a highly inflected language; it used five cases, as well as Active, Middle and Passive voice. Koine Greek was almost reduced to four cases, and the Middle voice was used rather inconsistently. Modern Greek distinguishes only three cases, but many endings have disappeared. It is a good example of van der Tuuk’s Ruin, as it is slowly becoming an isolated language.
However, this model cannot be used to explain the origin of highly sophisticated language systems like Sanskrit and Greek.
Language change, as Crowley’s model shows, would be unlikely to produce consistent endings for the whole of the Inflecting Language.
The fact remains that the Greek/Sanskrit parent was utterly consistent...
If chance, then, did not make this Proto Language, where did it get its consistency from?
It suggests a Designer.
In Babel one of the groups was given the sophisticated, and utterly consistent, Proto Indo-European language.
Sadly, as people in a fallen world began to use this language, it slowly began to lose some its consistency, as grammatical mistakes became fashionable.
The facts we observe today are consistent with the Tower of Babel account in Genesis 11, but this does not prove the correctness of the account.
Since the history of languages cannot be reconstructed beyond 10,000 years, evidence for (and against) alternative views is limited.
...if we take an objective look at the facts at our disposal we cannot but draw the conclusion that the Bible account has far more going for it than the alternatives, for which there is little, if any, evidence.
We therefore wholeheartedly believe that the findings of historical and comparative linguistics have served indeed to affirm the Tower of Babel account recorded in Genesis 11, beyond reasonable doubt
Believing this account, however, requires believing in God, and the denial of the evolution theory, which suggests that all animals, humans, and even human language, arose by chance. For many, this might prove too big a price to pay, despite the evidence.